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Textiles are materials that are consist of flexible strands, filaments or fibers. The fibers may be either natural or synthetic and are joined together using one of several techniques depending on whether the material is considered to be a woven or nonwoven textile. A woven textile is created by intertwining the individual strands using any number of processes the most common of which are weaving, knitting, knotting and crocheting.
Textiles, which are more commonly known as fabrics and cloths, are used in a wide range of industries ranging from apparel to biomedical to aerospace.

Textile Testing Properties:

The purpose of testing the mechanical properties of textiles is to determine their ability to perform under the service conditions of their desired application and whether or not a different material is needed.

The tensile properties of textiles usually describe the amount of tensile force necessary to cause a fiber or the textile as whole to rupture and the elongation at the breaking point. Tensile properties accurately describe the expected behavior of a textile material as it encounters forces that cause it to stretch or expand.

Friction properties indicate the textile’s ability to with stand abrasive forces that may wear upon the material and cause it to fray, come undone or otherwise decrease its integrity. The frictional force a textile may experience generally occurs when it is rubbed against a more rigid surface for an extended period of time.

Tear properties determine the behavior of the individual fibers of a textile when they are subjected to breaking forces that affect them separately from one another. Tear properties include the tear strength, tear resistance and puncture resistance, it is directly affected by the method used to join the fibers together.

Textile Testing Specimens:

Textiles come from two forms: woven and nonwoven. The difference between the two is the method used to join the fibers together. For woven textiles the fibers are intertwined together in a pattern that allows the fibers to benefit and rely upon each other; however for nonwoven textiles the fibers are joined together with chemical, mechanical, or thermal forces that cause the strength of the material to be dependent upon the strength of the method used.

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