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Tensile Test


Tensile tests are considered to be essentially the opposite of a compression test.A test sample is loaded in tension when it experiences opposing forces acting upon opposite faces both located on the same axis that attempt to pull the specimen apart. These tests are simple to setup and complete and reveal many characteristics of the material that is tested.

Purpose of tensile testing:

The measurements taken during the test reveals the characteristics of a material while it is under a tensile load. Generally a tensile test is designed to be run until the sample fails or breaks under the load. The values that may be measured from this type of test can range from but are not limited to tensile strength, ultimate strength, elongation, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, Poisson’s ratio, and strain hardening.

Many types of tensile tests:

There’re many different variants of tensile tests. But a few of the more common tests are tension, tensile adhesion, tensile shear, tensile grab, tensile pulling, tension fatigue, and tensile creep. In most of these tests the specimen is loaded until it fails or fractures with the main difference in the type of specimen geometry and associated tensile test fixture used. Tension fatigue testing differs not only in the type of grip but also in the test machine type. It is performed by loading the material to a positive force and then reducing the load to zero and repeating this process until the sample fails with the number of cycles till failure as the desired value to be measured. Tensile creep is similar to this, but there is a little difference that the load is not altered but rather steadily applied until the sample fails.

Types of materials:

Nearly all materials can be did tension test in one manner or another. The more popular materials include metals, plastics, woods, polymers and textiles. The test sample often take the shapes of bars, strings, strands, coupons, dog bones, and dumbbells depending upon the material, the tensile grip, and test performed on the sample. Materials with high compressive strength values have relatively low tensile strength, such as brick and aerospace composites. But as their applications do not normally require them to withstand tensile loads, these are not generally tested in tension.

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